Maconha recreativa pode? E novos cassinos no Estado? Sacolinha plÃ¡stica Ã© legal? O salÃ¡rio mÃnimo deve subir (para adultos) ou diminuir (menores aprendizes)? Atores pornÃ´ tÃªm de usar camisinha no set de filmagem?
No dia 8 de novembro, quando americanos forem Ã s urnas, haverÃ¡ mais em jogo do que decidir entreHillary Clinton ou Donald Trump para a PresidÃªncia do paÃs e qual serÃ¡ a cara do prÃ³ximo Congresso americano.
As medidas acima norteiam alguns dos 135 plebiscitos que aparecerÃ£o dispersos nas cÃ©dulas de 34 Estados e do Distrito de ColÃºmbia (onde fica Washington), junto com as opÃ§Ãµes para presidente, governador, senador e deputados.
A legalizaÃ§Ã£o da maconha lidera o nÃºmero de consultas populares â€“Ã© tema no pleito de nove Estados. O mais populoso do paÃs, a CalifÃ³rnia, vota o uso recreativo da erva 44 anos depois de ouvir sua populaÃ§Ã£o pela primeira vez sobre o assunto.
Em 1972, dois terÃ§os dos californianos rejeitaram o movimento “legalize jÃ¡”. Em 1996, o Estado aprovou a Lei do Uso Piedoso, liberando a maconha para tratamento de doenÃ§as como o cÃ¢ncer.
Californianos rejeitaram tentativas de permitir o consumo tambÃ©m para diversÃ£o, o que hoje sÃ³ Ã© legal em quatro Estados (Colorado, Washington, Alasca e Oregon).
A Ãºltima campanha derrotada, de seis anos atrÃ¡s, teve apoio do bilionÃ¡rio George Soros. AssociaÃ§Ãµes como NarcÃ³ticos AnÃ´nimos e o governador na Ã©poca, Arnold Schwarzenegger, eram contra. O “nÃ£o” ganhou por 53,5%.
Diretor da OrganizaÃ§Ã£o Nacional pela Reforma das Leis de Maconha (Norml), Paul Armentano diz Ã Folha que a legalizaÃ§Ã£o em massa nos EUA daria “barato” tributÃ¡rio.
“A taxaÃ§Ã£o sobre o comÃ©rcio da erva e de produtos feitos com ela, de algodÃ£o doce a gel para gatos, renderia US$ 28 bilhÃµes [R$ 88 bilhÃµes].” O dado Ã© da Tax Foundation, think-tank que nÃ£o faz lobby pela causa.
A CalifÃ³rnia tambÃ©m serÃ¡ responsÃ¡vel por dois plebiscitos pioneiros: referendar uma lei para proibir as sacolas plÃ¡sticas de mercados e farmÃ¡cias e elevar em US$ 2 o imposto sobre cigarro no Estado, onde um maÃ§o custa em mÃ©dia US$ 6 (R$ 19).
Outra consulta propÃµe a imposiÃ§Ã£o da camisinha na indÃºstria pornÃ´, jÃ¡ aprovada na cidade de Los Angeles.
A coalizÃ£o Californianos Contra a PerseguiÃ§Ã£o no Trabalho Ã© contra: a iniciativa criaria uma “cultura do medo” perigosa, com janela para extorquir sobretudo pequenos produtores.
TrÃªs Estados (Colorado, Washington e Maine) vÃ£o opinar sobre o aumento do salÃ¡rio mÃnimo, que varia de Estado para Estado â€“o piso nacional Ã© de US$ 7,25 (R$ 23) a hora, equivalente a cerca de R$ 3.600 por mÃªs.
Abaixo um resumo em inglÃªs, feito pelo The Weed Blog, sobre as especificidades de cada um dos oito plebiscitos. De acordo com esse outro bom resumo, do site The Cannabist, os estados Dakota do Norte, Montana e FlÃ³rida farÃ£o tambÃ©m plebiscitos sobre a maconha, mas nestes casos apenas medicinal.
California â€“ The Adult Use of Marijuana ActÂ (AUMA) campaign has turned in enough signatures that it will likely be on the ballot in California in November. The initiative would legalize the possession of one ounce of marijuana flower, or up to four grams of cannabis concentrates for those 21 years and older. The cultivation of up to six plants would also be legalized, in addition to hemp production and a taxed and regulated system for a recreational marijuana industry.
Nevada â€“ Nevada voters will see marijuana legalization on the ballot in November. The initiativeÂ would legalize the possession of one ounce for those 21 years and older, and a taxed and regulated recreational cannabis industry. Anyone who does not live within 25 miles of a marijuana store would be allowed to grow up to six marijuana plants.
Maine â€“ An initiativeÂ in Maine, which originally had been determined to not have enough valid signatures to make the ballot, will indeed appear on the November ballot after the campaign successfully sued to get some invalid signatures validated. The initiated legalizes the possession ofÂ up to 2 1/2 ounces of marijuana and legalize the possession, cultivate, and transportation of up to â€˜6 flowering marijuana plants, 12 immature marijuana plants and unlimited seedlings, and possess all the marijuana produced by the marijuana plants at that personâ€™s residenceâ€™Â for those 21 years and older. The initiative would also createÂ a taxed and regulated recreational cannabis industry.
Arizona â€“ TheÂ â€™Legalization and Regulation of Marijuana Actâ€˜ initiative should be on the ballot in Arizona this November. The signature deadline isnâ€™t until July 7th, and signature gathering efforts have been going strong. The initiative would legalize the possession of up to one ounce of marijuana for those 21 years and older. Additionally,Â the initiative would createÂ a taxed and regulated recreational cannabis industry. The initiative â€˜allows adults to grow up to six marijuana plants in an enclosed, locked space within their residences and possess the marijuana produced by those plants in the location where it was grown. No more than 12 total marijuana plants can be grown in a single residence.â€™
Massachusetts â€“ AnÂ initiative to regulate and tax marijuana like alcohol in Massachusetts should be on the November ballot. The initiative met the initial requirement to put the issue before the Massachusetts Legislature, which punted on the issue. Campaign organizers have to gather a little over 10,000 signatures by June 22nd, which I donâ€™t see being an issue. The initiative wouldÂ createÂ a taxed and regulated recreational cannabis industry. The initiative â€˜allows adults 21 years of age and older to possess up to one ounce of marijuana outside of their residences and up to 10 ounces of marijuana in an enclosed, locked space withinÂ their residences.â€™ The initiative also allows â€˜allows adults 21 years of age and older to grow up to six marijuana plants in an enclosed, locked space within their residences and possess the marijuana produced by those plants in the location where it was grown. No more than 12 total marijuana plants can be grown in a single residence.â€™
Florida â€“ Florida will be voting on medical marijuana for the second election cycle in a row. Florida saw medical marijuana narrowly defeated (2 percent) in 2014. The campaign is back with a better initiative, and has the benefit of knowing the pitfalls to avoid and how to better leverage what works this time around. The initiative legalizes theÂ â€™medical use of marijuana for individuals with debilitating medical conditions as determined by a licensed Florida physician. Allows caregivers to assist patientsâ€™ medical use of marijuana. The Department of Health shall register and regulate centers that produce and distribute marijuana for medical purposes and shall issue identification cards to patients and caregivers.â€™
Missouri â€“ New Approach Missouri has turned in a significant amount of signatures, and if the signature validation rate goes well, Missouri voters should see medical marijuana on the ballot. Roughly 167,000 valid signatures are needed, and the campaign turned in roughly 250,000 total signatures according to media reports. That means there would need to be between a 66-67% validation rate. Looking at historical validation rates for other initiatives in recent history, thatâ€™s about in the middle of what has occurred, so thereâ€™s a great chance the initiative will make it.
Michigan â€“ The MILegalize campaign has had a spot in my heart since the very first announcement of the campaign. I have always rooted for Michigan, and for reasons that are unknown to me, and donâ€™t make sense to me, the Michigan campaign went the entire way without any significant help from the national level. The campaign turned in hundred of thousands of signatures, and while it will take a pretty high signatures validation rate, Iâ€™m still personally hopeful that the recreational marijuana legalization initiative will make the ballot. The MILegalize team did an outstanding job, and I tip my hat to everyone involved. The grassroots movement in Michigan is strong, and I look forward to anything and everything that comes out of there. Go get â€™em Michigan!
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